The second challenge is to turn digital subjects into digital citizens. Limiting the powers of platforms by the fundamental rights of their users – digital constitutionalism – lays a foundation on which a platform must provide the tools, structures and incentives for users to actively participate in shaping society, digital or otherwise.
Finally, we require the development of cultures conducive to minimising online harm. This is challenging, as the Internet hosts communities of an immeasurable range of perspectives, values and norms. The paper proposes two answers. First, that certain values are better than others. Promoting values of respect, understanding and equality, as well as fundamental human rights as put forward by the United Nations, should be encouraged. Second, that the infrastructure on which online communities and cultures are built should help empower and inform that community.
In the paper, we present solutions in principle and practice to the challenges presented by content moderation practices and systems, and put forward a number of recommendations.